Development trend of high strength fasteners and general components
- Categories:Industry News
- Time of issue:2021-03-22 09:20
(Summary description)China's mechanical fasteners and general parts market sales have ranked in the forefront of the world, China has become a major manufacturer of basic parts. The main problem of the development of the industry at this stage is that the industry is large but not strong, and the structural contradictions are outstanding. Faced with the opportunities and challenges, the development of basic components is lagging behind the host computer.
1. After years of development, the machinery general parts industry has formed a large-scale, complete-range and solid-based industry: there are tens of thousands of machinery general parts enterprises in China, and more than 5,000 production enterprises with more than 5,000 scale. Among them, there are about 200 major backbone enterprises, with annual sales exceeding 25 billion yuan and exports exceeding 7 billion US dollars. . China's general mechanical parts market sales have ranked in the forefront of the world, China has become a major manufacturer of basic parts.
2. Industrial technology has improved significantly, and the market competitiveness has been further enhanced: the average annual growth rate of more than 20% has been maintained for many years, the industrial technology has improved significantly, the product structure has been optimized and upgraded, and the domestic and foreign market has developed strongly. The domestic market share has reached about 85%, providing most of the accessories for military projects. The independent supporting ability of major technical equipment has been greatly improved. The import and export volume has increased by a large margin, with an annual average export growth rate of 30%. It has become a major exporter of mechanical and electrical products and further enhanced its international competitiveness. The total value of import and export of general parts has become the main part of the total value of import and export of machinery basic parts industry. Its import value accounts for 80% and export value accounts for 60%.
3. Enterprise management level and development concept have made a qualitative leap. The management and operation quality of enterprise management has been improved obviously. Enterprise leaders attach importance to adopting advanced equipment and technology, quality management, staff training, and software strength construction. Enterprise management is changing from extensive management to refined management. Fine management develops.
(2) Problems: The main problems in the development of the industry at this stage are that the industry is large but not strong, and the structural contradictions are prominent, which are mainly manifested in the following aspects:
1. Imports of key components are heavily dependent on imports, and core technologies are subject to people: in 2010, the industry imported 13.5 billion US dollars, exported 7 billion US dollars, and the trade deficit was 6.5 billion US dollars. Core technologies such as automotive automatic transmission and high-speed train transmission are heavily imported, with gear imports of $10.4 billion in 2010 and a deficit of $8 billion. Fasteners are big exporters, but the price difference between imports and exports is as high as 6-8 times.
2. Unreasonable industrial structure, obvious product quality gap: overcapacity of low-grade products, inadequate capacity of high-grade products, the formation of low-level repetitive construction, homogenization of malignant competition, according to preliminary statistics: high-grade products accounted for about 10%, medium-grade products accounted for about 50%, low-grade products accounted for about 40%. Industrial concentration is low, CR10 is about 30%.
Product quality stability, consistency, reliability gap is larger, product life is shorter, generally 30-70% of the life of similar products abroad, there is a considerable gap with the user requirements. Production efficiency, energy consumption, material consumption, emissions and environmental protection are quite different.
3. Lack of high-level technical personnel, low level of equipment: lack of high-level innovative technical personnel, lack of industrial skilled workers is more common, the current industry engineering and technical personnel accounted for 5-6% of the staff, and in the front line engaged in design, craft personnel less than 2%. There are fewer high-grade equipments, more middle and low-grade equipments, the proportion of high-grade equipments in Enterprises above scale is about 1%; there are fewer numerical control equipments, more motor-driven electric equipments; there are more single machine work, less automatic and intelligent production equipments; there are more manual sampling, less on-line detection, the existing level of special machines in this industry is obviously different from that of foreign countries.
(3) Opportunities and challenges facing the country: the serious lag of basic components behind the development of the main engine has attracted great attention. The development of high-end components has become a strategic issue in the development of equipment manufacturing industry, and the development mode needs to be changed urgently. For this reason, the state has promulgated a series of policies and measures, such as the "Plan for the Rejuvenation and Implementation of the Mechanical Foundation Parts Industry", the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" for the Development of Mechanical Foundation Parts, Basic Manufacturing Technology and Basic Materials, which calls for "breaking through a number of key manufacturing technologies for basic parts and components, and reaching the international advanced level at the beginning of the 21st century". Create a favorable policy environment for the development of spare parts.
Domestic market: General mechanical parts and components are important basic components in industrial products. Government policies stimulate domestic demand. Automobile, railway, highway, power generation, transmission and distribution, environmental protection and infrastructure have been greatly developed. Due to the "global" purchasing of automotive parts and the "localization" strategy of multinational corporations, there will be a huge market demand for the repair and installation of gears, fasteners, chains, springs, powder metallurgy, coupling brakes and so on.
Overseas market: During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, the industry is facing changes in the domestic and international environment, and the structure of market demand will undergo major changes. The slow recovery of international trade, while grasping domestic sales, can not relax exports, while actively adjusting the distribution of export areas and marketing proportion, marketing strategy, so that the export structure more reasonable. It is estimated that the average export growth rate of industrial products will be about 10% during the period of 12th Five-Year.
The key parts of construction machinery are the foundation, support and bottleneck of the development of construction machinery products. When the construction machinery develops to a certain stage, high-tech research in the industry mainly focuses on the key parts such as engine, hydraulic, transmission and control technology. Mastering and relying on high-quality, distinctive key components has become the strategy for manufacturers to seek "excellence".
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